What are the characteristics of the stem cells
What are the characteristics of the stem cells?
A very current topic concerns the conservation of the umbilical cord stem cells, which can be used in the medical field. But not everyone knows what stem cells are, for this reason it is important to know characteristics and classification.
The stem cells are differentiated cells, that is, which do not have a defined functional identity. Replying other stem cells originate, and this means that they are capable of self -injurious, but they are also able to originate all the cells that make up an adult individual 1 .
The population of stem cells is very wide.
Inside there are several cells with various differential skills:
- Totipotent stem: they generate all the cells of an individual, including those of the annexes
extra -embryonic, like the placenta;
- pluripotent stems: they can originate all the cells of an individual, except those of the tissues
- Multipotent stem: differentiating, they can originate more cellular types but limited to one
Specific function. For example hematopoietic cells (blood stem) can
generate all cells of the blood line, but not those of the brain.
The classification of stem cells is based on the home seat
In fact, they are virtually present in every tissue and are distinguished in:
- embryonic stem: they are multi -patent cells present in embryo 2 . The use of these cells
raises ethical problems as their collection implies destruction
of the embryo himself;
- Staminals of the umbilical cord: they are multipotent cells present in the cord blood.
Can be collected totally painless and safely both for the newborn and for the
mum. The use of cord stem cells cannot in any way be associated with issues
- adult stem cells: they are virtually present in all the organs and tissues they make up
the adult individual. From the point of view of clinical application, adult stem cells are more important
they are the hematopoietic ones, which originate all blood cells, and the mesenchymal ones,
capable of originating multiple cell types (e.g. adipose and cartilage cells) 3 .
Stem cells are a biological heritage virtually capable of generating any tissue and any
organ of an individual.